Propaganda is information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view. Propaganda is often associated with the psychological mechnisms of influencing and altering the attitude of a population toward a specific cause, position or political agenda in an effort to form a consensus to a standard set of belieft patterns.

Propaganda is information that is not impartial and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce and emotional rather than a rational response to the information presented.

Today the term propaganda is associated with a manipulative and jingoistic apprach, but propaganda historically was a neutral descriptive term.

Propaganda is a modern Latin word, the gerundive form of propagare, meaning to spread or to propagate, thus propaganda means that which is to be propagted. Orginially this word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic Church created in 1622, called the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, or inofrmally simply Propaganda. Its activity was aimed at propagating the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries.

From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere.


Identifying propaganda has always been a problem. The main difficulties have invoved differentiating propagandafrom other types of persuasion, and avoiding a biased approach. Garth Jowett and Victoria O’Donnell have provided a concies, workable definition of the term : Propaganda is the deliverate,

Accoridng to historian Zbynek Zeman, propaganda is defined as either white, grey or balck. White propaganda openly discloses its source. Grey propaganda is ambiguous or non-disclosed. Black propaganda purports to be published by the enemy or someone besides its actual origins.

Propaganda shares techniques with adverstising and public relations, each of which can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person, or brand. In post-World War


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