Lnius Benedict Torvalds born Devember 28, 1969 is a Finnish software engineer who is the creator and, for a long time, principal developer, of the Linux kernel; which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating system, Android and Chrome OS. He also created the distribuited revision control system Git and the diving logging and planning software Subsurface. He was honored, along with Shinya Yamanaka, with the 2012 Millennium Technology Prize by the Technology Academy Finland in recognition of his creation of a new open source operating system for computers leading to the widely used Linux kernel. He is also the recipient of the 2012 IEEE Computer Society Computer Pioneer Award.
Torvalds was born in Helsinki, Finalnd. He is the son of journalists Anna and Nils Torvalds , and the grandson of statistician leo Tornqvist and of poet Ole Torvalds. Both of his parents were campus radicals at the University of Kelsinki in the 1960s. His family belongs to the Swedish-spekaing minority. Torvalds was named after Linus Pauling, the Nobel Prize-winning American chemist, although in the book Rebel Code Linux and the Open Source Revolution, Torvalds is quoted as saying, I think I was named equally for Linus the Peanuts cartoon character, noting that this makes him half Nobel Prize-winning chemist and half balnket-carrying cartoon character.
Torvalds attended the University of Helsinki between 1988 and 1996. graduating with a master’s degree in computer science from NODES research group. His academic career was interrupted after his first year of study when he joined the Finnish Army Uusimaa brigade, in the summer of 1989, selecting the 11-month officer training program to fulfill the mandatory military service of Finland. In the army he held the rank of Second Lieutenant, with the role of a ballistic calculation officer. Torvalds bought computer science professor Andrew Tanenbaum’s book Operating Systems : Design and Implementtion, in which Tanenbaum describes Minix, and educational stripped-down version of Unix. In 1990, he resumed his university studies, and was exposed to UNIX for the first time, in the form of a DEC MicroVVAX running ULTRIX. His M.Sc. thesis was titled Linux A Portable Operting System. His interest in computers began with a Commodore VIC-20, at the age o f 11 in 1981, initially programming in BASIC, but later by directly accessing the 6502 CPU in machine code. He did not make use of assembly language. After the VIC-20 he purcheased a Sinclair QL, which he modified extensively, especially its operating system. Because it was so hard to get software for it in Finland, Linus wrote his own assembler and editor in addition to Pac-Man graphics liberaries for the QL, as well as a few games. He is known to have written a Pac-Man clone named Cool Man. On January 5, 1991 he purchaed an Intel 80386-based clone of IBM PC before receiving his MINIX copy, which in turn enabled him to begin work on Linux.
THe first prototypes of linux were publicly released later that year. Version 1.0 was released on March 14, 1994 Torvalds first encountered the GNU Project in 1991, after another Swedish-speaking computer science studnet Larz Wirzenjus took him to the University of Technology to listen to free software-guru Richard Stallman’s speech. Torvalds used Stallan’s General Public License version 2 for his lunux kernel.
After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996, Torvalds accepted a position at the company in California, wher he would work from February 1997 until June 2003. He tehem moved to the open Source Development Labs, which ahs since merged with the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, under whose auspices he continues to work. In jun 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Dunthrope, Oregon, to be closer to the OSDL’s Beaverton, Oregon-based headquarters.
From 1997 to 1999, he was involved in 86 open helping to choose the standard binary format for Linux and Unix. In 1999, he was named by the MIT technology Review TR100 as one of the world’s top 1000 innovators under age 35.
In 1999, Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linux-based software, presented Torvalds with sotck options in gratitude for his creation. That same year both companies went public and Torvalds’s share value temporarily shot up to troughly US$20 million.
his personal mascot is a penguin niucknamed Tux, which ahs been widely adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel.
Although Torvalds believes open source is the only right way to do software, he also has said that he uses the best tool for the job, even if that includes proprietary software. He was criticizd for his use and alleged advocacy of the proprietary Bitkeeper software for version control in the Linux kernel. Torvalds subsequently wrote a free-software replacement for BitKeeper called git.
In 2008, Torvalds started that he used the Fedora distribution of Linux because it had fairly good support for the OpwerPC processor architecture, which he had favored at the time. His usage of Fedora was confirmed in a later 2012 interview. He has also posted updates aobut his choice of desktop environment, often in response to perceived feature regressions.
Currently, the Linux Foundation sponsors Torvalds so he can work full-time on improving Linux.
Linus Torvalds is known for d isagreeing with other developers on the Linux kernel mailing list. Calling himself a really unpleasant person, he later explained I’d like to be anice person and curse less and encourage people to grow rather than telling them they are idiots. I’m sorry – I tried, it’s just not in me. His attitude, which Torvalds considers necessary for making his point clear, has drawn criticism from Intel programmer Sarah Sharp and systemd developer Lennart Poettering, among others.
The Linus/Linux connection
Initially, Torvalds wnated to call the kernel he developed Freax a combination of free, freak, and the letter X to indicate that it is a Unix-like system, but his friend Ari Lemmke, who administered the FTP server where the kernel was first hosted for download, named Torvalds’s directory linux.
Authority and trademark.
As of 2006, approximately two percent of the Linux kernel was written by Torvals himself. Because thousands have contributed to the Linux kernel, this percentage is one of the largest contributions to it. However, he stated in 2012 that his own personal contribution is now mostly merging code written by others, with little programming. Torvalds retains the lhighest authority to dcide which new code is inocrportated into the standart Linux kernel.
Torvalds hold s the Linux trademark. and monitors the use of it, chiefly thorught the Linux Mark institue.
Linus Torvalds is married to Tove Torvalds – a six-time Finnish nationa lkarate champion whom he first met in the autumn of 1993, Linus was ruuning introductory computer laboratory exercises for studnets and instructed the course attendees to send him an e-mail as a test, to which Tove responded with an e-mail aksing for a date. Tove and Linus were later married and have three daughters, Patricia Miranda, Daniela Yolanda, and Celeste Amanda, two of whom were born in the United States, The Linux kernel’s revoot system call accepts their dates of birth wirtten in hexadecimal as magic values.
Torvalds describes himself as completely a-religious-atheist, adding that I find that people seem to think religion brings morals and appreciation of nature. I actually think it detracts from both. It gives people the excuse to say, Oh, nature was just created, and so the act of creation is seen to be someting miraculous. I appreciate the fact that . Wow, it’s inredible that something like this could have happened in the first place. He later added that miraculous. I appreciate that while in Europe religion is mostly a personl issue,, in America it has become very politicized. When discussing the issue of church and state separation, Torvalds also said, Yeah, it’s kind of ironic that in many european countries, there is actually a kind of legal binding between the state and the state religion
In 20110, Torvalds became a United States citizen and registered to vote in the United States. He is unaffiliated with any U.S. political party, saying, I have way too much personal pride to want to be assocaited with any of them qute frankly.