Torvalds attended the University of Helsinki between 1988 and 1996

Torvalds attended the University of Helsinki between 1988 and 1996, graduating with a master’s degree in computer science from NODES research group. His academic career was interrupted after his first yeaer of study when he joined the Finnish Army Uusimaa brdgade, in the summer of 1989, selecting the 11-month officer training program to fulfill the mandatory military service of Finland. In the army he held the rank of second lieutenant, with the role of a ballistic calculation officer. Torvalds bought computer science professor Andrew Tanenbaum’s book perating systems : Design and Implementation, in which Tanenbaum describes MINIC, and educational stripped-down version of Unix. In 1990, he resumed his university studies, and was exposed to UNIX for the first time, in the form of a DEC MicroVAX running ULTRIX. His M.Sc.thesis was titled Linux : A Portable Operating System.

His interest in computers began with a Commodore VIC-20, at the age of 11 in 1981, initially programming in BASIC, but later by directly accessing the 6502 CPU in machine code. He did not make use of assembly language. After the VIC-20 he purchased a Sinclair QL, which he modified extensively, especially its operating system. Because it was sh hard to get software for it in Finland, Linus wrote his own assembler and editor (in addition to Pac-Man graphics librariese) for the QL, as well as a few games. He is known to have written a Pac-Man clone named Cool Man. On January 5, 1991 he purchaseed an Intel 80386-based clone of IBM PC before receiving his MINIX copy, which in turn enabled him to begin work on Linux.

The first prototypes of Lunux wer publicly released later that year Version 1.0 was released on March 14, 1994. Torvalds first encountered the GNU Project in 1991, after another Swedish-speaking computer science student Lars Wirzenuius took him to the University of technology to listen to free software-guru Richard Stallman’s speech. Torvals used Stallman’s General Public License version 2 for his Linux kernel.

After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996, Torvalds accepted a position at the company in California, where he would work from February 1997 until June 2003, He then moved to the Open Source Development Labs, which has since merged withe the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, uder whose auspices he continues to work. In June 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Dunthorpe, Oregon, to be closer to the OSDL’s Beaverton, Oregon-based headquarters.

From 1997 to 1999, he was involved in 86open helping to choose that standard binary format for Linux and Unix. In 1999, he was named by the MIT as one of the world’s top 100 innovators under age 35.

In 1999, Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linuxbased software, presented Torvalds with stock options in gratitude for his creation. That same year both companies when public and Torvalds’s share value temporarily shot up to roughly US20 million.

His personal mascot is a penguin nicknamed Tux, which has been widely adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel. Although Torvalds believes open source is the only right way to do software, he also has said that he uses the best tool for the job, even if that includes proprietary software. He was ciriticized for his use and alleged advocacy of the proprietary BitKeeper software for version control in the Linux kernel. Torvalds subsequently wrote a free-software replacement for BitKeeper called git.
In 2008, Torvalds stated that he used the Fedora distribution of Linux because it had fairly good suppor for the PowerPC processor architecture, which he had facored at the time. His usage of Fedora was confirmed in a later 2012 interview. He has also posted updats about his choice of desktop envieronment, often in response to perceived feature regressions.
Currently, the Linux Foundation sponsors Torvalds so he can work full-time on improving Linux.
Linus Torvalds is known for disagreeing with other developers on the Linux kernel mailing list. Calling himself a really unpleasant person. he later explanined I’d like to be a nice person and curse less and encourage people to grow rather than telling them they are idiots. I’m sorry – I tried, it’s just not in me, His attitude, which torvalds considers necessary for making his point clear, has drawn criticism fro mIntel programmer Sarah Sharp and systemd developer Lennart Poettering, among others.

The Linus/Linux connection
Initially, Torvalds wanted to call the kernel he developed Freax a combination of free, freak, and the letter X to indicate that it is a Unix-like system, but his freind Ari Lemmke, who administered the FTP server where the kernel was first hosted for download, named Torvalds’s directory linux.

Authority and trademark.
As of 2006, approximately two percent of the Linux kernel was written by Torvals himself. Because thousands have contrivuted to the Linex kernel, this percentage is one of the largest contributions to it. however, he stated in 2012 that his own personal contribution is now mostly merging code written by others, with little programming. Torvalds retains the highest authority to decide which new code is incorporated into the standard Linux kernel. Torvalds holds the Linux trademark and monitors the use of it, chiefly through the Linux Mark Institute.

Personal life.
Linus Torvals is married to Tove Torvals – a six-time Finnish natinal karate champion whom he first met in the autumn of 1993. Linus was running introductory computer laboratory exercises for studnets and instructed the course attendees to send him an e-mail as a test, to which Tove responded with an e-mail asking for a date.

Torvals describes himself as completely a-religious-atheist, adding that I find that people seem to think religion brings morals and appreciation of nautre. I actually think it detracts from both.

He later added that while in Europe religion is mostly a personal issue, in America it has become very politicized. When discussing the issue of church and state separation, Torbalds also said, Yeah, it’s kind of ironic that in many eropean countries, there is actually a kind of legal binding between the state and the state religion.
In 2010, Torvalds became a United States citizen and registerd to vote in the United States. He is unaffiliated with any U.S. poltical party, saying, I have way too much personal pride to want to be associated with any of them, quite frankly.

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